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盛酒或盛水器
【时代】春秋
【藏品描述】:

春秋
盛酒或盛水器
1961年山西省侯马市出土
高84.5厘米
        铜壶出土地侯马一带,春秋时为晋国晚期都城新田所在地,遗址于1952年被发现。此后历经调查、勘探,发掘出一系列的古城遗址。在这些古城以南,分布有制作青铜器、陶器、骨器和石器的作坊;古城东南,有祭祀、盟誓遗址。晋是周成王叔父叔虞的封国,都于唐(今山西省翼城县西)。春秋初期晋昭侯分封叔父成师于曲沃(今山西省闻喜县东北),造成分裂局面,后为曲沃武公所统一。晋献公迁都于锋(今山西省翼城县东南)陆续攻灭周围小国。晋文公改革内政,国力富强。公元前632年,晋联合齐、秦等国伐楚救宋,在城濮(今河南省濮城)大败楚军,会诸侯于践土(今河南省广武县),成为中原霸主。公元前585年,晋景公又迁都新田,从此新田成为历时200多年的晋国都城。
        这件方壶由壶身和壶盖两部分组成。壶身侈口、高颈,颈两侧有衔环的兽首耳,四棱为兽形扉棱;腹明显外鼓,四棱上部也是兽形扉棱;圈足上有镂孔,下部垂直下折呈台状。壶盖上有外侈的镂孔捉手,下有子口以伸入壶身;盖四棱也有兽形扉棱,兽首在上,张口衔上缘。壶身和壶盖均有纹饰:壶身颈部纹饰可分两组,由上到下分别是一周波带纹和两周简化龙纹,腹部主题纹饰是交龙纹,龙纹下还有蛙纹和鸟纹等;盖缘则饰一周穷曲纹。
        这件方壶体形较大,纹饰繁缛,气势不凡,为春秋晋国青铜器中的精品。据《左传》等文献记载,公元前585年,晋由绛迁都新田(新绛),考古发现证明今山西侯马即晋都新田之所在。这件器物所出的侯马上马墓地13号墓,是晋都新田时期的一座重要的贵族墓葬;同墓还出有与方壶形制、纹饰基本相同的另一件方壶,现藏山西博物院;其他共出青铜器还包括徐王之子庚儿所作的青铜鼎。
        壶是当时最主要的盛酒器,按形状可分为方壶和圆壶。根据《仪礼》的记载,方壶多用于重要的礼仪场合,等级也较高。目前发现的春秋时期较高规格墓葬中,多随葬有成对的方壶。(撰文:闫志)

【收藏地】中国国家博物馆
【博物馆网址】:http://www.chnmuseum.cn/tabid/212/Default.aspx?AntiqueLanguageID=1046
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